The List of Questions

Community Gathering
Hunting Learning
Project Q_Extras

COMMUNITY

How does your community interact with the land?

C01 How is the use of the land shared among community members?

C02 How do you judge the health and well-being of your community?
C03 What things that you see on the land affect that judgment?

C04 How have changes in access to the land, caused by increased road construction, altered your community's relationship with the land?

C05 What do you see as being the major problems on your community's land?
C06 Are the problems different now compared to when you were young?

C07 In your lifetime, have you seen the community adopt any new rules to guide peoples' actions on the land?
C08 What kinds of things might result in new rules?

C09 What are the major changes in your community that you have seen over the years?
C10 How have these changes been affected by changes on the land?

C11 Has the way in which the land is shared among community members changed over the years?

C12 Do people have stronger ties to community groups now than in the past?
C13 Are there new kinds of community groups or associations?

C14 Have the responsibilities of members of the community for the land changed?

C15 In what ways has technology (for example, new kinds of equipment, new sources of knowledge such as television) changed people's relationship with the land?

C16 How do the people in the community decide if a family is in need of help (related to the land)?
C17 What forms can the help take?

C18 What changes in the land have had the greatest effect on your community?

C19 Have you seen changes in the lands of other communities that have had great effects on other communities?
C20 To what extent have similar changes occurred on your own community's land?
C21 Are there changes that you know have occurred elsewhere that would have a major effect in your own community?
C22 Would the changes be good or bad?
C23 How would the community cope?

C24 How much do families vary in their dependence on the land?
C25 Are there more differences among families now, with regard to dependence on the land, than in the past?


Have the roles of the chiefs and elders changed?
C26 Do different chiefs and elders have different roles and responsibilities for the land?
C27 What are the different kinds of roles and responsibilities?

C28 Do the chiefs and elders have different responsibilities now than in the past?

C29 Has the way in which they make decisions changed?

C30 Do they have to make new kinds of decisions now?

C31 Are there any other changes in the roles and responsibilities of the chiefs and elders that you can tell us about?


Is your community like other communities in the area?
C32 Do you see your community's lands as being similar to, or different from, the land of the other communities in the area?
C33 What are the main similarities and differences?

C34 Do you see other communities in the area as having the same set of values as your own community, in their interactions with the land?

C35 How does your own community interact with other communities with regard to the land?

C36 Are there any significant events in the history of your own community, compared to neighboring communities?

C37 Does your land have more landslides, erosion, fires or floods than the lands of neighboring communities?


What are the relationships of men and women to the land?
C38 Do men and women carry out different tasks on the land now, compared to your grandparents time?

C39 Would men and women see different problems arising from changes in the land?

C40 Do men and women have different responsibilities for teaching about the land, compared to the old days?

C41 Do you think the roles of men and women have changed for other communities in the area more than for your own community?

C42 Do men and women have different responsibilities for the land now, compared to the past?


How is knowledge used and shared in your community?
C43 Do people in your family and community share their observations and knowledge of the land with others in the same way as in the past?

C44 Do you share knowledge and observations of the land with family members differently from the way you share it with others in the community?

C45 If you see something, such as an increase in deer populations or a bigger crop of a particular kind of berry, this year or for two years in a row, would you assume that there would be more deer or a bigger crop next year?
C46 What do you need to see or know before you can tell if plants or animals will increase or decrease.

C47 Someone observes something new in the environment, such as flowering of a particular kind of plant, or a change in the condition of the deer, that suggests that it is time to carry out a new activity, or change the way things are done on the land.
C48 How is that information shared with the community so that the changes happen?

C49 If people in your community have had discussions about the land with government agencies or forest industry, how have their views and experience been accepted?

C50 How useful are maps for recording knowledge about the land?

C51 Do most people in your community have similar knowledge of the land?
C52 In what ways are your own experiences unique?

C53 Do you know of any questions, or have you made any observations, about the land that people do not have a good answer or reason for?
C54 How important is it to get answers or reasons?


How are decisions made in the community?
C55 When your community is making decisions about the land based on things people have seen, is there more weight given to things seen by several people compared to things seen by one person?

C56 When decisions about peoples' actions on the land are made and changes happen, sometimes the change may not be for the best. Are decisions that don't work out as well as expected more frequent or less frequent than in the past?
C57 Are the consequences of these decisions more severe or less severe than in the past?

C58 Are people more prepared to take risks now than in the past?
C59 A risk could be to try a new method, or try a new area, or a different time of year for an activity. What other kinds of risks can you think of?

C60 How are disagreements about the use of the land resolved in your community?

C61 In what ways do maps help the community to make decisions about the land?


GATHERING

Have gathering practices changed?
G01 How are gathering rights shared in the community?
G02 Has this changed in your experience?

G03 Are there any traditional practices or activities conducted for the land or for the plants you gather?
G04 Have these practices changed since your grandparents time?

G05 How are other members of your family involved in your activities?
G06 Has the kinds of involvement changed over the years?

G07 How have changes in commercial gathering of plants and mushrooms by others affected you?

G08 Do other communities have similar gathering practices to your own community?

G09 How much of your activity is for food, medicine, trade, sale or gifts to others?
G10 Has this balance of activities changed over the years (for example, do you trade less now than in the past).

G11 Has new technology (new kinds of equipment, even things like cars and trucks) changed the way things are done, compared to traditional ways?

G12 Do people spend more time or less time in gathering than in the past?

G13 Do they gather from areas further from the village or closer to the village than in the past?
G14 How has the importance of gathering of food and medicine changed, if any, from traditional gathering usage?

G15 How do the gathering activities change with season?

G16 How does the knowledge that you pass on to children change as they get older?
G17 How do you build on what they have previously learned?

G18 What kinds of traditional practices are conducted with the material you gather?
G19 Has this pattern of use changed over the years?


How have forest and range practices affected your activities?
G20 How do different forest practices like tree planting (usually of a single species of tree), pruning, thinning and spacing, fertilization, selective harvesting (where only a few trees of a particular species or size are removed), affect your activities?

G21 How do forest clearcut sizes and layouts affect your activities?

G22 How do forest or range fires affect your activities?
G23 How have changes in forest fire control, and the rules for setting fires, changed gathering?
G24 When fires used to be set, how did people decide where, when and how to set them?

G25 How have changes in cattle range and agriculture affected your gathering?

G26 If a new forest practice is introduced in your area, what would you look at to evaluate the effects?

G27 Have new forest and range practices in the area in your lifetime changed the things you use to evaluate the current and future states of plant populations?


How do you use your knowledge in your activities on the land?
G28 In what ways have you had to increase traditional knowledge with your own experience to be successful under present conditions on the land?

G29 In what ways would the knowledge you pass to your children differ from the knowledge which you received?

G30 How does your knowledge of the weather influence your gathering activities?

G31 In what ways do you share knowledge about your gathering experiences with members of your family and others in your community?

G32 Do you use maps in your activities?
G33 In what ways do you use them?

G34 When you are evaluating the present and future conditions of a plant population, how do you use information from what you experience in the land as you move through it?
G35 Where you find the plants?
G36 The frequency with which you encounter the plants?
G37 Their stage of development?
G38 What you find when you are preparing the plants for use?
G39 When the plants are cooked and eaten?
G40 When the plants are used as medicine or for crafts?

G41 What kind of signs, such as opening of the buds of a particular kind of tree, do you use to tell you when it is best to do particular gathering activities?

G42 How can you tell if an area is in need of a rest from gathering activities?
G43 How do you tell how long the rest should be?
G44 How often should areas be rested?

G45 How interested are members of the younger generation in the knowledge and wisdom you have obtained?


How does health of the land affect your activities?
G46 Sometimes caterpillars of the spruce budworm remove the needles from the trees over a large area.
G47 When the needles are gone, changes can occur in the plants of the understory (the plants growing under the trees). Have you experienced any changes in the understory vegetation that affect the plants that you gather?

G48 What does traditional knowledge tell about the effects of loss of needles from the trees on the plants and animals in the area?

G49 In your opinion, do you get new kinds of plants growing in response to loss of needles on the trees

G50 What kinds of changes to the land are caused by insects and tree diseases?
G51 When the land changes as a result of insects or diseases, are the changes good or bad, useful or harmful?

G52 When you see small openings in the forest surrounded by dead and dying trees, do you know if root diseases are acting there?
G53 Are these kinds of opening important to your activities?

G54 Do you carry out any special activities to make the land healthier?


What is the involvement of men and women in gathering?
G55 How does the involvement of men and women gathering material for use in medicine, food (cooking and preserving), clothing, crafts and firewood compare with the old days?


HUNTING

Have hunting, trapping and fishing practices changed?
H01 How are hunting, trapping and fishing rights shared in the community?
H02 Has this changed in your experience?

H03 Has new technology (new kinds of equipment, even things like cars and trucks) changed the way things are done, compared to traditional ways?

H04 Do people spend more time or less time in hunting, trapping and fishing than in the past?
H05 Do they go to areas further from the village or closer to the village than in the past?
H06 How has the importance of gathering of hunting, trapping and fishing changed, if any, from traditional practice?

H07 How do the hunting, trapping and fishing activities change with season?

H08 Are there any traditional practices or activities conducted for the land or for the animals who have given their lives?
H09 Have these practices changed since your grandparents time?

H10 How are other members of your family involved in your activities?
H11 Has the kinds of involvement changed over the years?

H12 How have changes in sport and commercial fishing elsewhere affected the fish stocks that you rely on?
H13 What different kinds of fish are caught?
H14 How are they used?

H15 Do other communities have similar practices to your own community?

H16 How do you use the animals that you catch?
H17 How much of your activity is for food, trade, sport, sale or gifts to others?
H18 Has this balance of activities changed over the years (for example, do you hunt less for food now than in the past).

H19 What uses do you make of different parts of the animals?
H20 Has this pattern of use changed over the years?


How have forest and range practices affected your activities?
H21 How do different forest practices like tree planting (usually of a single species of tree), pruning, thinning and spacing, fertilization, selective harvesting (where only a few trees of a particular species or size are removed), affect your activities?

H22 How do forest clearcut sizes and layouts affect your activities?

H23 How do forest or range fires affect your activities?
H24 How have changes in forest fire control, and the rules for setting fires, changed hunting and trapping?
H25 When fires used to be set, how did people decide where, when and how to set them?

H26 How have changes in cattle range and agriculture affected your hunting and trapping?

H27 If a new forest practice is introduced in your area, what would you look at to evaluate the effects?

H28 Have new forest and range practices in the area in your lifetime changed the things you use to evaluate the current and future states of animal populations?


How do you use your knowledge in your activities on the land?
H29 In what ways have you had to increase traditional knowledge with your own experience to be successful under present conditions on the land?

H30 In what ways would the knowledge you pass to your children differ from the knowledge which you received?

H31 How does your knowledge of the weather influence your activities?

H32 In what ways do you share knowledge about your hunting and trapping experiences with members of your family and others in your community?

H33 Do you use maps in your activities?
H34 In what ways do you use them?

H35 When you are evaluating the present and future conditions of a deer population, how do you use information from what you experience in the forest as you move through it?
H36 Where you find the deer?
H37 The frequency with which you encounter deer, and whether they are male or female, old or young?
H38 What you find when you are butchering and skinning the deer?
H39 When the meat is cooked and eaten?
H40 How about other kinds of animals you hunt and trap?

H41 What kind of signs, such as opening of the buds on a particular kind of tree, do you use to tell you when it is best to do particular hunting and trapping activities?

H42 How can you tell if an area is in need of a rest from hunting, trapping or fishing activities?
H43 How do you tell how long the rest should be?
H44 How often should areas be rested?


How does health of the land affect your activities?
H45 Sometimes caterpillars of the spruce budworm remove the needles from the trees over a large area.
H46 When the needles are gone, changes can occur in the plants of the understory (the plants growing under the trees). Have you experienced any changes in the understory vegetation that affect the animals you hunt and trap?

H47 What does traditional knowledge tell about the effects of loss of needles from the trees on the plants and animals in the area?

H48 In your opinion, do local animal populations change their distribution in response to vegetation changes resulting from loss of needles on the trees?
H49 If they do, then would more distant populations, in areas with no needle loss, change in response to these local changes, such as to move in to vacated areas?

H50 What kinds of changes to the land are caused by insects and tree diseases?
H51 When the land changes as a result of insects or diseases, are the changes good or bad, useful or harmful?

H52 When you see small openings in the forest surrounded by dead and dying trees, do you know if root diseases are acting there?
H53 Are these kinds of opening important to your activities?


What is the involvement of women ?
H54 How does the involvement of women in hunting, trapping and fishing compare with the old days?

H55 How easy is it for a young woman to gather information in these traditionally male areas?
H56 What does it take for them to establish credibility and gain the confidence of some male elders?


LEARNING

How do you learn about the land?
L01 What age are you just now?

L02 What kinds of things are you learning about the land now compared with what you learned four or five years ago?

L03 How do the things you have learned about the land, and the way you learned them, compare to the things your friends know?

L04 Does much of your knowledge of the land come from school?
L05 How does what you learned there compare with what you learned from your family and community?
L06 What is different about science, as you learn it in school, compared to traditional knowledge?

L07 Does much of your knowledge of the land come from watching television?
L08 How does what you learned from TV compare with what you learned from your family and community?
L09 What is different about science, as you learn it from TV, compared to traditional knowledge?

L10 Would you teach your children any differently from the way you learned?

L11 What have been the most interesting things to learn about the land and the ways you interact with it?

L12 What have been the most difficult things to learn about the land and the ways you interact with it?

L13 Do people in your community interact with the land differently from other communities you are familiar with?

L14 Do people in your generation get involved in different activities (in relation to the land) from your parents and grandparents?
L15 If so, how did you learn about these activities?


PROJECT

What is the best land?
P01 We have photographs taken at different places in the Nicola Valley. What do you like about each picture and what don't you like?
P02 Would other people you know have similar likes and dislikes?


What do you think about this project?
P03 The Nicola Tribal Association is involved in monitoring the use of the knowledge which we are gathering during these interviews. Are you satisfied that this will ensure proper use?
P04 Are there any limits you would like to see on the use?

P05 Does the way in which we have set up the project and the interviews affect the kind of information you are willing to share?
P06 Can you suggest any changes to the way we are doing things?

P07 Do you know of any questions or have you made any observations about the land that people do not have a good or reason for?


Q_EXTRAS

Interview Subject Specific Questions (Subjects initials in brackets followed by relevant question number)
QEX01 In response to some unclear discussion (M3 H53)

QEX02 I noticed that you have horses here, chickens and (M4 C34)
QEX03 Probably the work that goes into keeping the animals (M4 C34)

QEX04 Do you want me to ask with the subheadings? And you can just talk on it? (M4 H19)

QEX05 Is inaudible, and does not seem part of the sequence (F3 C61)
QEX06 What is this for? (F3 C61)
QEX07 That makes everybody happy there, enjoying their meals.(F3 C61)

QEX08 The way that the land is being used. Do you think maybe you could suggest a better way or a different way? (F3 P06)

QEX09 How did they keep the areas clean, like where you pick huckleberries and stuff like that, so it doesn't grow over -- a long time ago: (F5 X07)

QEX10 Was that a 'controlled' kind of burning? (F5 X07)
QEX11 How was that for gathering, say if lightning took a tree down, never burnt it but it fell? (F5 X07)
QEX12 So no one who is gathering would take that tree home? (F5 X07)
QEX13 F5B's comment: (F5B X07)

QEX14 How much time do you spend when you gather? do you go overnight or for the day? (F6 H10)
QEX15 How do you know what kinds to pick? (F6 H10)

QEX16 You talked about your job? (F6 From Conversation)
QEX17 What was the main causes for so many dead fish? (F6 From Conversation)
QEX18 So they were dieing from natural causes? (F6 From Conversation)

QEX19 How do you make the indian icecream? (F6 From Conversation)

QEX20 You talk about talking about having a wood stove, for your home. (F6 From Conversation)
QEX21 Was it already cut down? (F6 From Conversation)

QEX22 Is there any other kind of plants other than berries that you gathered for your home? (F6 From Conversation)
QEX23 Is that wild asparagus? (F6 From Conversation)
QEX24 What time of year is that? (F6 From Conversation)

QEX25 Do you utilize any of the sage? (F6 From Conversation)



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